Xylella fastidiosa needs to be inoculated into xylem vessels through an insect vector to access the plant’s xylem. Within the Auchenorrhyncha suborder of Hemiptera, various insects can successfully act as vectors for Xylella fastidiosa, with geographical variations in this role. In the Mediterranean regions of Europe, the spittlebug Philaenus spumarius, a member of the Aphrophoridae family, has proven to be an effective vector for transmitting Xylella fastidiosa, including cases in Spain. Given the developmental biology of these vectors, it is hypothesized that the microbiota in their foregut originates from the xylem of the plants they feed on. Therefore, it is crucial to characterize the microorganisms adapted to survive and establish as symbionts in the foregut of Xylella fastidiosa vectors. This innovative perspective suggests that controlling vector-borne bacteria could be based on using symbiotic microorganisms associated with insects capable of exerting antagonistic properties against the target plant pathogen. This objective is carried out by the group of The Institute of Sustainable Agriculture (IAS) of CSICframed within subproject 1 entitled “Identification and selection of xylem- and insect vector foregut-colonizing bacteria with biocontrol potential against Xylella fastidiosa subspecies” and led by Dra. Landa and Dra. Haro. In the image, we can observe the process of cutting the foregut of Philaenus spumarius, which involves initially cutting the head and subsequently removing the eyes. This procedure is carried out with the ultimate goal of extracting microbial DNA and conducting metagenomic analysis through the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene.